Category Archives: Sales readiness

Hiring Sales Talent? Seek These Three Essential Skills

As a strategist, I look for performance gaps. They are often concealed within operating statistics, and can require sleuthing to flush out.  For me, an adrenaline rush comes from finding a subtle gem and elevating it to the conference room white board. “Strategic priorities for this quarter . . .” By now, you can tell that I don’t attract large crowds at parties.

I like big gaps because sometimes, they can be fixed cheaply, offering a satisfying bang for the buck. “Your problem, Carolyn, is right here, hiding in plain sight.” My clients return a hearty thank you, consistently followed by “we can address this without changing the budget!” Indeed.

Competency misalignments crop up regularly. To achieve revenue targets, sales organizations need one set of skills, but when the specifications get to Human Resources, things have already gotten lost in translation. Odd scenarios unfold. Even when job seekers have excellent sales skills, the company passes them up because the candidate didn’t satisfy HR’s check boxes.  Or, the candidate presents strong sales competencies, but the interviewer doesn’t know how to recognize them. Without dazzling a hiring manager, could a sales candidate be the next Billy Mays ? Or more commonly today, could sales talent knock at a company’s door without tripping a resume algorithm’s cold, hard decision boxes? Absa-tively. It happens every day.

Here’s an example from a posting I found today for a software sales representative. (I purposely omitted the company’s name):

1) Minimum 5+ years of successful software sales experience
2) Experience in consultative selling
3) Experience in lead role of a team-selling environment
4) Ability to uncover and identify new business opportunities
5) Excellent communication, organizational and interpersonal skills

To assist a candidate’s self-selection for applying, this company gives five low-level requirements. Millions of people have experience doing things. I have experience golfing, but I’m not a good golfer. That doesn’t stop me from checking the Experience box. Does successful mean the candidate achieved quota every year, or just sold something a handful of times? Only Ability to uncover and identify new business opportunities affords the interviewer an opportunity to ask for meaningful demonstrations of skill, along with assessing how the candidate approaches these two challenges. And none of these items are concerned with past client outcomes. That’s pretty typical. It’s all about revenue, and not whether there was a satisfied buyer who paid for the product or service.

And executives wonder why their customers are perpetually dissatisfied with their buying experiences, and express disdain over their interactions with salespeople.

Toiling over sales hiring specifications is a fool’s errand, with little value other than keeping HR staff busy writing requirements. Excellent communication, organizational, and interpersonal skills are table stakes for any sales candidate. For anyone lacking these skills, who would have the temerity to apply?

My proposal is to dump all the picayune sales rep “must have’s”, and focus on discovering three self-reinforcing skills in sales candidates:

  1. Gain rapport and trust. B2B, B2C, high-tech, low-tech, or no-tech – every salesperson must be able to establish rapport with a prospect and gain trust, or nothing else can happen.
  2. Qualify opportunities. A salesperson able to qualify opportunities throughout the buying process has a much stronger chance of making quota than one who doesn’t. What about a person who has marginal qualification skills, but makes goal anyway? I attribute that to a quota that was to low to begin with – or to luck.
  3. Guide buying transactions through completion – and beyond. In an earlier time, I’d say solid closer. Now, I grumble at that expression, because as a customer, I don’t like being closed. A salesperson can only be effective when he or she knows how to guide prospects to outcomes that are mutually beneficial for buyer and seller. Long term, the sale doesn’t matter if the buyer doesn’t benefit.

That’s it: three must have’s. The rest – years of experience, industry knowledge, team selling, consultative selling, what have you – is simply icing on the cake. These skills depend in part on innate abilities, and they require constant attention to hone and perfect. Include them in every hiring requisition. And challenge job candidates to back up their claims of competency with past examples, and to provide explanations about how they have developed these skills. This will help you find right talent. The rest can be taught on the job.

Sales Lesson #1: Don’t “Get” Your Customers to Do Anything!

Every so often, an article with a title like How to Get Any Customer to Take Action Immediately, burbles into my newsfeed. There are infinite variants. No matter what you want your customers and prospects to do, you can count on finding a putative method for making it happen. But for all the how-to’s devoted to getting customers to do things, it’s easy to forget that the goal, of course, is helping them succeed, and not twisting their arms – figuratively or otherwise.

If you ask top producing sales reps – those who truly serve customers – how they get their customers to buy, they’d probably be confused by the question. Instead, they’d reveal that they don’t get their customers to do anything. What produces their excellent results is their ability to guide their customers, and ultimately help them achieve good outcomes. Guiding versus Getting: these are fundamentally different approaches, with little in common. Guiding assumes prospects can be trusted, Getting assumes they cannot. Guiding sees prospects as partners, Getting sees them as objects. Guiding views prospects as capable decision makers, Getting views them as inept. Guiding relies on inquiry and collaboration, Getting relies on telling and insistence. In countless interviews I’ve held with successful sales professionals, I’ve learned they embrace Guiding in every customer interaction, and eschew Getting.

“How to get your prospect to [fill in the blank]!” What regularly emerges are manipulative high-pressure sales tactics that break customer rapport and erode trust. Instead of improving sales outcomes and buying experiences, the resulting behaviors and activities undermine them.

The top producers I’ve worked with have figured out a better way, and honed their skills accordingly. They begin with a natural curiosity, and connect it to a sincere desire to understand customer problems, limitations, issues, concerns, performance gaps, and strategic challenges. They uncover the intensity of motivation to change the situation, and learn the mechanisms their customers have developed for investing in solutions. And if customers lack the mechanisms, top producers guide them to create a path forward. From there, they harness the power of the customer’s will to change. The energy might be low, or altogether absent, which is why reps, often goaded by their managers, turn to Getting. My question to them: how’s that working for you? . . .

The best salespeople know that attempting to force customer action can become a distraction. It can also backfire. As one rep, Denise, explained it to me, “I don’t push the monthly specials the way management wants me to. They don’t work, and it’s not the way my customers buy . . . When I talk on the phone, there’s no sales urgency to my voice.” The year I interviewed her, she was her company’s top producer out of over 50 reps. Though her immediate boss wasn’t clear about the reasons for her success, her statement provides much of the answer: Denise guides her customers. She doesn’t get them to do anything.

Considering a Career in Sales? Find Something Different!

“Do you know what a sales interview is?” a friend of mine quipped. “It’s one person lying about the future, talking to another lying about the past.” My friend knew his joke contained truth. Newly retired from B2B sales, he wasn’t sanguine about the future of the profession. As we chatted over lunch, I added a few of my own anecdotes and observations. It was a lively talk. No need for alcohol.

Selling ain’t what it used to be. It’s possible that my friend stowed his sales bag for the last time because he was burned out. Though, at age 61, it was probably the right time to get off the bricks. The rest of that afternoon and into the next day, I thought about what he shared with me. I ruminated on the meaning of his dark joke. I considered how I might respond if a young person sought my advice about whether to pursue a sales career. The assessment that followed my introspection did not come easily, but here it is: look elsewhere. Today, there are better choices.

When I began my business career in the early 1980’s, things were different. Salespeople were respected. While most of us toiled in offices with a boss sitting nearby, salespeople had autonomy. They worked variable hours. They dressed well, and from all appearances, they lived well, too. At many companies, salespeople could expect higher-than-average income, often garnering better pay than managers. At a time when level of education predicted lifetime earnings, selling careers flamboyantly defied the calculus. A salesperson’s earning ability depended more on his or her motivation, tenacity, and street smarts than having a college degree. It still does.

At the manufacturing company where I worked my first job out of college, you could easily identify the cars that belonged to the salesmen (the company had no female sales reps): big, new, four-door, and well-appointed. A sales rep’s car did not just provide transportation, it proclaimed success. An important message for customers and coworkers to hear.

As the company’s IT Manager, I had nebulous goals. But the salesmen were measured on one thing –  revenue production. And they were paid accordingly. No mealy objectives, no ambiguity, and no boss holding sole power to dictate next year’s income. If salespeople felt anxiety about their compensation at risk, their job perks and upside income potential eased the pain. For these reasons and others, I too became drawn to a sales career.

When I was hired for my first sales job in the 1980’s, Marketing Representative was a common title for entry-level salespeople. Dale Carnegie, Zig Ziglar, and Brian Tracy were popular role models. I read their books, and listened to their tapes on the way to sales calls. Their messages brimmed with optimism, and were consistently inspiring. “Success is getting what you want . . . Happiness is wanting what you get,” Dale Carnegie wrote.

I learned that great power came from an unwavering belief in yourself. Good stuff. Today, those messages can still be heard, but they’re muted beneath the torrent of condescension and humiliation that spills unabated into my newsfeeds. Mislabeled as coaching and tips for self-improvement, today’s writing upbraids the rank-and-file. It carries titles like Salespeople – Shut up and listen!, and Salespeople Can’t Sell Anymore . General Patton would be proud.

What happened? The sales profession has lost its allure. Technological, economic, and social forces have combined to erode many of the once-valuable tasks that sales professionals provided. None have been profound than Artificial Intelligence (AI), data warehousing and distributed information systems, and investor demands to increase profits.

AI: AI has displaced thousands of repetitive, tedious sales tasks, and enables buyer self-service. Lead qualification and content fulfillment, once large drains on selling time, can now be performed better, faster, and cheaper by using algorithms.

Data Warehousing and distributed information systems: The ubiquity of customer information has allowed companies to knock down the massive walls that once surrounded the sales organization. Today, almost any employee can make rain, or generate revenue. In departments as disparate as customer support, maintenance, and route delivery and logistics, employees can take an order, recommend upgrade services, sell new products, and make other changes without referring customers to a “sales desk,” or an assigned salesperson.

Investor demands to increase profits: Spending excess has always been a popular target for the CFO’s scalpel, and sales operations contain conspicuous fat. Peeling back the covers on Sales, General & Administrative expenses reveals copious spending hiding in plain sight. Cutting high sales salaries, generous incentive pay, over-the-top benefits, Quota Club, annual golf outings, and season tickets at sports events, quickly gains approval from investors. “Think about it: If you have to ply your clients with gifts or meals to get them to do business with your firm, then your product  probably isn’t worth its price,” Andy Kessler wrote in The Wall Street Journal this month (The Expense-Account Racket, December 4, 2017).

Young people will find sales and business development careers less promising than when I started out. Some key issues:

Money. Meh. Commonly used as a recruiting tool, the promise of high income for salespeople is often illusory. A chunk of annual comp is “at risk,” which means what’s actually earned might be less than what’s projected (recall my friend’s joke at the beginning of this article).

The University of Virginia McIntire School of Commerce Destinations Report for 2017 reported average total compensation for its newly-minted grads who accepted sales and sales management jobs: $61,300. Tepid, compared to other business disciplines listed in the report. Among McIntire grads, the best coin goes to investment bankers, who were rewarded with a list-topping average annual comp of $115,000. Finance holds the #2 spot, at $90,294. (The average starting pay for 2017 undergraduates across all categories is around $50,000, according to Money magazine.)

Career path. You might think I’m mansplaining, but I’m not. There are two well-established trails:

  1. Revenue you produce meets or exceeds quota – keep your job
  2. Revenue you produce is less than quota – get fired.

If you crave living in northern reaches of the corporate org chart, the likelier route to get there goes through finance. “About 30 percent of Fortune 500 CEOs spent the first few years of their careers developing a strong foundation in finance. This is by far the most common early experience of today’s CEOs,” according to an article in Forbes.

Autonomy. Thanks to CRM software and advanced analytics, selling has become the most scrutinized, measured, and micro-managed business activity. “Drive higher quota attainment across your entire sales team by recording, transcribing, and analyzing their sales conversations,” one product website says. Some reps might welcome the assist. But I question the reasons. If a sales rep or manager needs software and spreadsheets to learn how customers perceive his or her words, or if they struggle to recognize positive things to say, maybe they’re in the wrong job. Or, maybe management simply doesn’t trust them to have adequate judgement.

Culture. A sales organization’s mission is to produce revenue, and its activities are aimed toward that goal. That’s a good thing if you don’t mind thinking about money above all else. But if you’re moved by more than how much business you will close this quarter, or the gross income figure on your W-2, that can become stultifying. Further, employers are often conflicted about sales. Sales VP’s expect reps to open accounts and build customer relationships, but they feel threatened when customers become more loyal to a sales rep than to the company. Hiring managers promise high income, but ratchet it back when they feel reps earn “too much.” It’s a power game, and companies try to maintain hegemony. As one district sales manager I worked with described it to me, “My ideal rep is a young guy with a stay-at-home wife, a mortgage, a baby, and another one on the way.” I’ve heard similar sentiment from others. A rep in a consumption trap can be controlled.

Goal conflict. Almost every sales position faces this problem, and it can be gut-wrenching to navigate. “Above all, make your number!” versus “Serve our customers!” It’s hard to keep two masters happy. But companies put their reps in a moral vise when they tie job security and pay to revenue results.

I don’t mean to imply that sales experience isn’t worth having. In fact, hands down, nothing prepares a young person better for success than gaining the rare combination of skills needed for converting prospects into buyers. This knowledge transfers to every business discipline, and provides understanding for how an enterprise achieves its central mission: acquiring – and keeping – customers.

You can’t learn any of it in a college classroom, and no other business experience provides a person anything more useful. People who have sales background understand not only that revenue doesn’t roll in on its own, they know the nitty gritty details of face-to-face selling. If you can get the opportunity to sell door-to-door, work as a sales intern, or have another sales experience, take it!  And if the work pleases you, stay with it. But keep your options open. There are other careers that are possibly more rewarding, and they can also benefit from your energy, effort, and passion.

From accounting to zoology, every career has its unique set of warts. Those that sully professional selling are no better or worse than any others. But whatever career you choose, make sure the warts that exist are warts you can live with. And as many in sales have learned, stay vigilant, because new ones grow all the time.

“Today, it is estimated there are anywhere from twenty thousand to forty thousand distinct occupations in the United States,” writes Robert Moor in his book, On Trails. “Rapid changes in technology, culture, education, politics, trade, and transportation have combined to allow people access to an array of lifestyles that was previously unthinkable. In the aggregate, this is a positive development, proof that our life’s paths are evolving to meet our varied desires. But a side effect of this shift – halting, gradual, and unevenly distributed as it may be – is that life’s options continue to abound until they overwhelm . . . Collectively we shape [life’s pathways], but individually they shape us. So we must choose our paths wisely.”

Learning: Does Your Sales Culture Lead – Or Get in the Way?

“Quit allowing your salespeople to make any excuses.”

This shiny emblem of willful ignorance carries a clear message: “Talk to the hand, ‘cause the face ain’t listening.” But under this noxious edict, some learnings thrive. For management, it’s how to be close-minded. And for salespeople, it’s that higher-ups don’t care.

Low-productivity sales organizations don’t just happen – they’re built on demands like this one. No-excuses cultures crush the ability to learn – a significant risk for revenue achievement. Knowledge impediments rank high with other selling risks that receive much greater attention – and most sales organizations unwittingly construct insidious barriers.

No excuses foists bad outcomes on a sales organization. For example, “Charmaine,” a software sales rep in the East region lost a major opportunity because her product lacked several features her competitor provided. The issue came up more than once in her client meetings, and her prospect told her it was a deciding factor when the buying committee selected her competitor.

But Charmaine’s boss constantly chided her to quit giving excuses and to “sell what we’ve got.” So, when the sales team met to discuss the revenue pipeline, Charmaine preserved the no excuses mantra, and didn’t share the problem with her manager. She didn’t share it with anyone.

At the same time, Charmaine’s competitor learned why his company won the deal. Predictably, he told other sales reps at his company, and anyone nearby who cared to listen. Which was everybody. From there, his company’s marketing department took the reins and proselytized the feature advantage to its global sales organization, its partner community, and its prospective customers.

The story doesn’t end there. No excuses claimed its next victim in the sales territory right next door. Charmaine’s Midwest colleague, Mike, faced the same competitor in a similar account. But he had just joined the company, and had no knowledge of Charmaine’s experience. Mike got clobbered, and lost his deal, too.

When Mike held his account review, his boss made a dutiful note, straight from the well-worn company Sales Playbook: “Rep failed to adequately differentiate our product from competitive offering.” More ignorance. As much as anything else, what lost the deal for Mike was a company culture that prevented knowledge sharing by championing “Talk to the hand!”

No excuses closed mindedness is just one way that sales organizations stifle learning. Edward D. Hess, Professor of Business Administration at UVa’s Darden School of Business, and author of a new book, Learn or Die, identifies other top learning inhibitors. Here’s how they infect sales organizations:

1. Complacency. “Our compensation plan is spot-on. I don’t see any need to change it,” one VP of Sales proudly told me. But if you asked members of his sales team, the package was way off target. Many reps were thoroughly dissatisfied with its complexity, and with the difficulty they experienced reconciling their commissions.

2. Fear of failure or looking bad. “Just move on!” – for many sales managers and reps, that’s a loss review. Meanwhile, wins are dissected with great zeal.

3. Intellectual arrogance. “Here’s everything you’re doing wrong and a list of what you need to do differently and you know now because I told you that’s why!” When a low-producing rep is put on “Plan,” managers assume the rep is un-motived, even stupid. So they behave didactically and squander the opportunity to learn from the rep’s perspective.

4. Emotional defensiveness. “That was the only pricing choice I could make, given what was known at the time.” “Emotionally, we are generally ‘defensive thinkers’ seeking to defend our self-image and our views of the world. That is our humanness,” Hess wrote in a 2014 article, To Get Ahead Today, Learn How to Learn.

Sales cultures block learning with other impediments, unique to selling:

1. Internal contests. Sure, they generate motivation, excitement, buzz, and enthusiasm. But they also encourage salespeople to hoard knowledge and know-how like a junkyard dog guarding a food bowl.

2. Focus on the machinery inside the sales funnel. A friend recently told me, “not looking is just as bad as not knowing.” He’s a cardiologist, and his point was that some serious conditions are missed even as they happen in full sight. Almost every VP of Sales knows his or her company’s sales funnel conversion rates. “28% of our leads convert to sales, so we’re right on target.” But few understand what caused 72% to exit the funnel.

Learning cultures don’t spontaneously generate. This article recently bubbled into my news feed: The 2016 Sales Must-Read Books: Build a Learning Culture. Wouldn’t it be great if by reading books, we could achieve this result? In reality, establishing a learning culture takes much, much more. “It is critical that the organization’s managers and leaders have learning mindsets . . . Paying more attention to the managerial mindset can help in the transition to a learning organization,” Hess writes. Reading books from sales thought leaders can improve sales performance, but not if companies allow learning inhibitors to permeate day-to-day sales operations.

Ways to create a learning sales culture:

1. Expose and extinguish Theory-X beliefs and attitudes wherever they lurk. Examples: “being nice to employees means they will take advantage of you,” “employees should feel lucky to work here,” and “employee-centric practices are inconsistent with high accountability.” [Hess]

2. Rethink what successful sales achievement means. That includes possibly re-defining it from revenue achievement to quality of customer engagement, and establishing metrics accordingly.

3. When conducting sales meetings, encourage candor, and be willing to confront facts, even when they are not pleasant.

4. Establish a meritocracy of ideas rather than acquiescing to opinions based on job title.

5. Champion intelligent decision making, while giving permission to fail.

6. Encourage members of the sales team to maintain a healthy skepticism.

7. Let go. “Smart, motivated people let go of decision making,” and trust subordinates to make worthwhile choices, Hess said. That means letting them learn, and not feeling personally threatened by their success.

Ego: Great to have, but for learning, check 95% of it at the door. When it comes to instilling a passion for knowledge sharing and intellectual development, sales cultures have a long way to go. A perpetual deterministic attitude frequently blocks the way: “We’re carrying a $200 million quota. Don’t tell me how you aren’t going to make your number – I want to know how you are!” Sure, we must create and execute a plan, but with “Don’t tell me . . .” I see a hefty chunk of knowledge, squished.

In a symposium I attended for the UVa’s Darden School in Virginia on April 11, 2016, Hess called out seven organizations known for exemplary learning practices:

Google
Amazon
Bridgewater Associates
IDEO
W. L. Gore
Pixar
US Special Operations Teams

The last one especially interests me. In the places where Special Ops conducts its business, imagine how things would go if the learning impediments common in sales prevailed. Most likely, there would be plenty more failures to talk about – and a lot fewer successes.

Wells Fargo’s Restitution Must Include Its Fired Sales Employees

Today, there’s a bold headline featured in full-page ads in newspapers across the US. In case you missed it, it’s printed in Wells Fargo red: “Moving forward to make things right.” Contrition, superimposed on a beautiful Western backdrop. In the foreground, a team of six strong horses in full stride pulling a stagecoach. No ethical feces anywhere to be found. All have been skillfully Photoshopped out of the picture. Great job!

“We are deeply committed to serving you and your financial needs . . .” the ad says.

OK – go on . . .

“We have provided full refunds to customers we have already identified and we’re broadening our scope of work to find customers we may have missed. If we have any doubt about whether one of your accounts was authorized, and any fees were incurred on that account, we will contact you and refund fees.”

As an IT professional, reading this makes me proud. Darn proud! – because I know that algorithms, flowcharts, decision boxes, and lines of code will rectify the filthy mess from human greed and poor managerial judgement. Geeks win!

But conspicuously missing from this humble outreach is any mention of the 5,300 or so employees who were fired because they “didn’t honor the bank’s values,” as Wells Fargo’s former CEO John Stumpf, phrased it. That’s wrong, because they, too, were victims.

In many instances, the bank hired young people just beginning their careers. Then, they manipulated their behavior through the Wells Fargo sales compensation plan – a tactic that included a sinister triad of low base pay, aggressive selling goals, and a menacing punitive cudgel for those who failed to “perform to expectation.”

Last week, NPR’s Planet Money podcast with Chris Arnold and Robert Smith made this agony visceral in their interview with Ashley, a former Wells Fargo employee who did not wish to reveal her last name.

When Ashley didn’t meet her quota, she recounted that two managers would show up at her desk. “They said ‘come with us.’ So I walked with them, followed the two of them through the large lobby, you know, past all my colleagues, whatnot – you know, it’s like being called into the principal’s office – sit down at the large conference table, no windows in this room. They shut the door, locked the door and put me on formal warning and say, ‘here’s your formal warning. You have to sign this. If you don’t meet your solutions, you will be fired, and it’s going to be on your permanent record.’ I mean, it was real, like, you were stuck. And it was the feeling that no other employer is going to want you because we will ruin you . . . I got sick to my stomach, and I threw up under my desk. Like, it really made me physically sick.”

For this, Ashley made about $35,000 per year working in a branch located in Wells Fargo’s corporate headquarters building in San Francisco where she regularly saw then-CEO John Stumpf. She became disenchanted with the ethical compromises her employer demanded of her. Most poignant was the price she continued to pay long after she was fired, as this excerpt describes:

ARNOLD: As far as Ashley, she started to refuse to meet her quota. She was just saying, look, I can’t ethically do this. She was calling the Wells Fargo ethics line trying to explain this, but eventually Wells Fargo fired her.

SMITH: Ashley tried to get another job in banking, but she found that she never made it very far past the initial interviews. She suspected that Wells Fargo had put some sort of black mark on her record somewhere. And it turns out that is exactly the case. Wells Fargo wasn’t joking around when they said they would make it hard for her to find work again.

ARNOLD: No. Wells Fargo wrote her up on what’s called a U5 document. It’s like a report card for bankers basically. We tracked it down, and we asked Ashley to read what it said.

ASHLEY: Failure to perform job duties.

SMITH: Any bank – any bank that Ashley applies to will see this line, failed to do job duties.

ARNOLD: The form does not mention that those job duties were the sales goals that everyone we spoke to said were unrealistic and that are at the center of a series of ongoing investigations at the state and federal level.

SMITH: It just says failed to do job duties. It was the first time Ashley had seen it in print.

ASHLEY: It’s like having a black cloud that’s kind of looming behind you. And I’m always trying to get in front of the cloud, out of the cloud, into the sunshine, but it’s always there.

How many Ashley’s are there? I’m estimating around 5,300, which is the number of employees Wells Fargo said it fired over several years for not succumbing to the bank’s seedy values. In the coming weeks, I expect we’ll hear from many of them. What restitution are they entitled to for their wrecked careers, lost wages, financial stresses, marriage difficulties, and broken dreams?

Yesterday, John Stumpf resigned his position as CEO in shame, after relinquishing millions of dollars in bonus, and having millions more “clawed back” by the board. But he still leaves the company a very wealthy man who will be comfortable in his long retirement. His grandchildren are all but ensured of attending college and graduating debt free. Future generations of Stumpf’s will live in decent homes in good neighborhoods. Health emergencies won’t send them into bankruptcy. Sadly, even that modest future eludes the families of many of Wells Fargo’s wrongfully-terminated employees. That includes those who stood by their convictions, and refused to accede to management’s deviant will. No good deed goes unpunished.

When it comes to restoring customer trust, algorithms and adjustments in credit scoring will patch management’s wrongs. Bogus credit card accounts will be discovered and closed. Fees will be refunded, making customers feel better. People will move on, and loan money will flow once again. But restoring what was ruthlessly taken from Wells Fargo’s employee victims will be much harder to accomplish.