Category Archives: Sales leadership

Revenue Growth: Don’t Let the Funnel Fool Ya!

Sales funnels symbolize a widely-known reality among marketers: s*** happens.

Funnels instantly remind us that interactions between buyers and sellers are fraught with risks – not that we need any reminding. Funnels also represent our fear that we can assiduously attempt to convert a prospect to a customer, but lo, there’s a chance we won’t prevail.

I like funnels because they are easy to understand. Funnels mansplain uncertainty and risk. When you need to justify a pipeline multiplier, or reveal the rationale behind a multi-channel lead generation campaign, simply fire a 2-D trapezoid shape onto the projection screen. Divide the image into equally-spaced horizontal stripes. Use bright colors. Then, dive into funnel taxonomy.  “Raw prospects enter the gauntlet at the top. From there, they undergo a metamorphosis, becoming Leads, then MQL (Marketing Qualified Leads), then SQL (Sales Qualified Leads). Those that emerge will be anointed as Opportunities before moving south, eventually crossing into a hallowed zone marketers call Paying Customers.” My presentation includes a bloated money bag positioned near the funnel’s bottom to drive home the idea. The screen glows even brighter. Warmth envelops the room. This is everyone’s favorite topic.

You already have recognized that my scenario is called The Happy Path. Happy paths, as we know, make people happy. Everything on the slide is linear. Everything is ordinal, with a prominent, single-headed arrow to emphasize the direction of actions, activity, and interest. The partitions between funnel stages are always crisp and distinct. “Questions? . . . No? Great! Let’s move on . . .”

I advance to the next slide to continue my speil when inevitably, someone – often a new hire – lobs a question with the antecedent, “What about . . .” I’m prepared. I press the “back” button, and ask, “Was there a question about the funnel?” Indeed. Many questions, actually. A partial list of ways to complete the interrogative:

. . . Lead qualification and disqualification, changed priorities, low buyer motivation, misaligned or insufficient sales incentives, faulty CRM data, lack of project funding, buyer fear, seller fear, redirected budgets, raised customer expectations, increased ROI hurdles, misunderstood needs, bad assumptions, new assumptions, strategic re-prioritizations, project starts-and-stops, buyer confusion, atrocious sales processes, predatory buying, industrial espionage, new decision hierarchies, flawed business intelligence, process breakdowns, competing internal agendas, technological innovation, tariffs, product recalls, spikes in monetary exchange rates, increases in the cost of capital, mergers and acquisitions, personnel changes, passive aggression, essential conversations that never materialized, relationships gone awry, cruddy demos, software bugs, regulations, external competitive maneuvering, internal competitive maneuvering, and stupid tweets from anyone with access to the company’s “official” Twitter account  . . .”

I don’t consider any of this the Unhappy Path. I call it Life. Here’s the problem: beyond their purpose for symbolizing risk, funnels don’t represent the myriad conditions companies encounter when executing revenue strategy and tactics. These examples obliterate the template funnel’s shape, and shatter that straight North-South arrow into countless, itty-bitty pieces.

For me, the funnel’s most meaningful features are its taper and length. The angle degree at the top should invite concern, interest, and discussion. “Our funnel is wide as a tank container at the top and narrow as a pipette at the bottom, and it takes one year to travel from top to bottom. Perhaps we’ve found the root cause for our cash flow problems.” In practice, few seem interested in dissecting the risks that cause the delta, and how to manage them. A funnel is a funnel. Counter-intuitively, the funnel’s ubiquity as a risk symbol has made us less risk aware.

Time for a fresh look.

Twitter abandoned its egg silhouette in 2017.  Assuming their objective was to render a human-ish image, the replacement – two detached shapes that faintly suggest a human head and shoulders – offers scant improvement. Imagine what we’d be purchasing if design engineers adopted such anonymized forms to use for prototyping. I suppose we’d have a visceral understanding of what daily life was like in the 1700’s. Similarly, how can companies create revenue strategy when using generic funnels as design templates?

Overlooked differences. At best, funnels suggest risk in marketing and sales. But they don’t mirror reality. I love Roadrunner cartoons, but for my safety and that of others, I resist letting them inform my understanding of physics.

Three real-world deviations from the funnel symbol:

  1. Pathway

Prospects enter sales funnels at many different points, not just at the top. Sales funnels are highly porous, and exit points vary, too.

  1. Re-cycling

Not every lead remains permanently outside the funnel. Prospects that have exited the sales or buying process can re-enter.

  1. Effort

Opportunities in sales funnels generally don’t drop from top to bottom on their own. As leads descend through the funnel, effort and costs increase for both sellers and buyers. In fact, if funnels reflected aggregate cost of sales, the model would be exactly flipped – small at the top, and large (or very large) at the bottom.

. . . And two overlooked similarities:

  1. Connectedness

As cash engines, revenue funnels are connected in several ways to the organizations they serve. They are not free-floating in space, as they are often depicted in presentations. Marketers implicitly understand that revenue funnels often receive inbound leads from a messy universe of opportunities, and that revenue flows from the bottom. But marketing funnels are but one component of a large system. They require additional input such as cash, information, talent, and other resources to operate.

  1. Throughput

With physical funnels, smooth material flow from top to bottom signal that the funnel is operating well.  But marketers often defer to a flawed proxy for funnel health: fullness. The problem is, full funnels can also be clogged. Rather than using funnel fullness as portents for cash-flow vitality, marketers should emphasize velocity and throughput as meaningful metrics.

 

General recommendations for funnel management: 

  1. Make sure the funnel opening is as wide as it needs to be, but no wider.
  2. Match the size of the opening at the bottom with the company’s revenue needs. That includes ensuring orders won’t swamp the company’s ability to fill them.
  3. Don’t take the taper for granted! Make sure it aligns with the company’s risk capacity.
  4. For planning purposes, net the funnel’s cash output against the resources required to operate it.
  5. Remember that throughput velocity is as important to consider as overall funnel value.

I’m not declaring funnels dead. Not by a long shot. The marketing and sales profession has long suffered from lack of probabilistic thinking, and funnels offer a symbolically-accurate representation of revenue generation risk.

Put another way, a picture that tells us  s*** happens is worth a thousand words.

One Sales Interview Question We Can Live Without

I often disagree with opinions that I read online. No biggy. Much rarer is when I read business advice so wrongheaded, so ill-conceived, and so dangerous that my forehead collides with my keyboard.

“awfjsoefivfdljkmdvfl;jkvxcljkvxcljk;m,..,m.” You can quote me.

That happened recently when a colleague shared an article on LinkedIn from Inc. Magazine titled, Recruiters Share Can’t-Miss Interview Questions to Disarm Candidates. A banal topic, but the word disarm piqued my curiosity. I had to read on.

At the top of the article appeared a paragraph, For sales positions. More curiosity. But that character string flew onto my screen when I got to the last sentence – a true zinger! Actually, the whole paragraph is just wrong:

“We interview candidates for both our internal company and for clients throughout the US. If someone is interviewing for a sales position, we’ve found that this question provides a lot of insight: What is the most expensive item you’ve ever purchased? The rationale behind it is that salespeople typically stop producing when they are ‘comfortable’ with their income, so this question provides insight into what may be ‘enough’ for them. For example, if I said that the most expensive thing I’ve ever purchased is a pair of $50 shoes, I may potentially not strive to make as much money as someone who answers, ‘I splurged and purchased a $500 pair of shoes because I knew that wearing them would be my motivation to make even more’.” 

Do top producers make a lot in order to spend a lot? Or, do they spend a lot, and therefore, they’re uber-motivated to make a lot? Either way, the notion that proclivities for acquiring expensive things predicts sales success is absurd, and perpetuates a horrible stereotype about salespeople.

At best, the recruiter’s question is misguided. At worst, it’s patently discriminatory. People who grew up with limited means are less inclined to make self-indulgent purchases than those who grew up wealthy. What about people send a chunk of their monthly income to family in their home country? What about solo-breadwinner parents who save every month to provide a college education for their children? My bet is that you’ll find them shopping at Target for footwear, not Neiman-Marcus. This recruiter wouldn’t understand their motivation or hunger for income because her myopia doesn’t allow her to. Not good, when your raison d’être is discovering the talent in others.

I don’t buy her rationale. I know top-producing salespeople whose penury makes Jack Benny look like a spendthrift. And I’ve met others who couldn’t sell their way out of a wet paper bag. But that idiosyncrasy didn’t prevent them from repeatedly hurling themselves into consumption traps. “His n’ her jet skis? Sure! I’m in!” So fawning over a candidate whose appeal comes from the fact that he swaggers in wearing a pair of $800 Santoni Darian Cap Toe Oxfords seems short sighted. Probe a little further beyond his conspicuous consumption, and you just might learn that he’s been paying the minimum on his credit card balance for the last 25 months, and lives with his parents.

Maybe for the purveyor of this advice, the best evidence of potential motivation shouldn’t be the candidate’s shoes, but his physical behavior. For that, I’d suggest she seek someone who chugs a bottle of Maalox daily, and chain smokes. Now there’s someone outwardly nervous! About what? Making money? Why not. The clothes add another data point to the desired fact pattern, thereby affirming the logic. It’s a vicious circle of self-congratulation.

But is that aggressive, stressed image really what companies want? Is that the face vendors want to project to customers? And, more ominously, what does an employee’s insatiable drive for disposable income portend for the safety of organizations, customers, employees, and other stakeholders? The questions are not intended to be facetious or hypothetical. I see the aftermath whenever I read about sales scams and betrayals of customer trust.

If you seek the One Best Question to ask sales candidates in 2019 – and there really isn’t a single question – I suggest ditching “what’s your most expensive purchase” for “when do you plan to retire?” If the candidate is 30-ish and says “not one minute past 40,” hire that candidate immediately! I don’t care whether he or she wears $4.99 flip-flops, and drove to the interview in a Hyundai Elantra. Or rode a bike.  F-I-R-E: it’s the new expensive wardrobe.

Online, you can find loads of more useful questions to ask sales candidates. In practice, however, I don’t believe sales interview questions need to differ much from those you’d ask a non-sales executive. The best guide I found comes from Harvard Business Review (7 Rules for Job Interview Questions that Result in Great Hires, by John Sullivan, February 10, 2016).

  1. Avoid easy-to-practice questions
  2. Be wary of [answers to] historical questions
  3. Assess their ability to solve a problem
  4. Evaluate whether they’re forward-looking
  5. Assess a candidate’s ability to learn, adapt and innovate
  6. Avoid duplication [by asking for information that’s already on a candidate’s resume]
  7. Allocate time for selling [your organization to the candidate]

I’d also ask the candidate to talk about resilience. Salespeople experience frequent setbacks. So, in addition to learning how goals were over-achieved, find out about responses and reactions to failure.

For many interviewers, the last rule represents an often-missed opportunity. Not only does it help reveal whether your organization matches what the candidate wants, but it offers the interviewer a reciprocal chance to convince the right candidate to join. And if the candidate isn’t right, he or she could share that information with a friend or colleague who is.

Sears: Bankruptcy through Management by Magazine

Sears, the company that gave the world Kenmore appliances, Craftsman tools, Sears houses, and catalog retailing “limped into bankruptcy” on October 15, according to The Wall Street Journal (Sears, Once Retail Colossus, Enters Painful New Era).  As one who grew up near two Sears anchor stores, this is astonishing. Never mind that for years, “the handwriting was on the wall.” It wasn’t always that way. Sears was the first major retail chain to build parking lots for cars and to offer store hours on Sundays. Talk about innovation!

The bankruptcy will affect nearly 70,000 Sears employees, and threatens the financial security of 100,000 Sears pensioners. “Employees are our greatest asset!” – until they’re not. In 1925, when Sears opened its first store in Chicago, the “limped into bankruptcy” part of their story was unimaginable. I wonder how Amazon’s epitaph will read, and when.

Over the next year, there will be copious Sears-related analysis. Stern-faced investment analysts will appear on TV. Wizened B-School faculty will lecture classes about the company’s missteps. And armchair quarterbacks like me will proffer reasons for the company’s demise, and post them online.

“In the end, Sears just didn’t . . .”  Almost any crucial corporate outcome or result you’d care to include at the end of that sentence will ring true. Management flew an already-troubled company into the ground in every sense of the word.  “It’s an American tragedy and it need not have happened, said Arthur Martinez, Sears CEO from 1995 to 2000. Amen.

As I read about the various Hail Mary’s Sears tried to save itself, I detected a strong aroma of Management by Magazine in the C-Suite. I saw how Sears executives flung themselves onto the life-ring of The Next Great Management Fix, and along the way, how they strangled the company beyond hope of resuscitation.  “Sears said in court papers if faces ‘catastrophic consequences’ if it can’t repair its unraveling supply chain. Some 200 vendors have stopped shipping goods to its stores in the past two weeks, and it faces potential liens if it can’t pay logistics companies owed millions of dollars over the coming weeks,” according to The Wall Street Journal.

Sears CEO Eddie Lampert resigned his position on October 15th. Here’s what he tried along the way. Below each, I’ve included counterpoints that by now, I’m sure Lampert wishes he read:

1. Cut costs, increase profits!

Analysis: the right strategy, done the wrong way.

“[CEO] Eddie [Lampert] inherited a difficult situation, but he made the operating performance worse,” said Steven Dennis, a former Sears executive who left the company in 2003. “He cut costs in places that hurt the company and didn’t reinvest in the stores.” Mr. Lampert’s strategy included cutting advertising spending. Predictably, goods wouldn’t sell, former executives told The Wall Street Journal. He also limited merchandise purchases to the point where stores routinely had empty shelves and outdated products.

Counterpoint: A Better Way to Cut Costs.

 

2. Create transformational change!

Analysis: the right strategy, done the wrong way.

“We chose transformational rather than traditional change,” Lampert said. “Some efforts gained traction while others did not, and there were external factors that have severely hurt the company.”

Counterpoint: Transformational and Incremental Change: A False Dichotomy?

 

3. Diversify, or die!

Analysis: the wrong strategy.

“Industry executives say Sears planted the seeds of its demise nearly 40 years ago when it diversified from socks into stocks with the 1981 purchases of the Dean Witter Reynolds brokerage firm and real estate firm Coldwell Banker,” according to The Wall Street Journal. “That was their first mistake,” said Allen Questrom, a retired retail executive who ran JC Penney. “They took their eye off the ball.”

Counterpoint: To Diversify or Not to Diversify

 

4.  Fail fast!  “Mr. Lampert would green-light a project, then quickly shut it down if returns didn’t materialize. That applied to investments other executives saw as necessary, such as store upgrades: Some stores had holes in the floors, broken fixtures and burnt-out lights.”

Analysis: the wrong strategy.

Counter-point: Why Fail Fast, Fail Often May Be the Stupidest Business Mantra of All Time. 

 

Lampert ran Sears via teleconference from his home in Florida. He visited the company’s Illinois headquarters “once or twice a year” according to former Sears executives. For those who believe senior executives lead by demonstrating their commitment to the company, it’s hard to miss Lampert’s message: “we’re toast.”

Sales Lesson #1: Don’t “Get” Your Customers to Do Anything!

Every so often, an article with a title like How to Get Any Customer to Take Action Immediately, burbles into my newsfeed. There are infinite variants. No matter what you want your customers and prospects to do, you can count on finding a putative method for making it happen. But for all the how-to’s devoted to getting customers to do things, it’s easy to forget that the goal, of course, is helping them succeed, and not twisting their arms – figuratively or otherwise.

If you ask top producing sales reps – those who truly serve customers – how they get their customers to buy, they’d probably be confused by the question. Instead, they’d reveal that they don’t get their customers to do anything. What produces their excellent results is their ability to guide their customers, and ultimately help them achieve good outcomes. Guiding versus Getting: these are fundamentally different approaches, with little in common. Guiding assumes prospects can be trusted, Getting assumes they cannot. Guiding sees prospects as partners, Getting sees them as objects. Guiding views prospects as capable decision makers, Getting views them as inept. Guiding relies on inquiry and collaboration, Getting relies on telling and insistence. In countless interviews I’ve held with successful sales professionals, I’ve learned they embrace Guiding in every customer interaction, and eschew Getting.

“How to get your prospect to [fill in the blank]!” What regularly emerges are manipulative high-pressure sales tactics that break customer rapport and erode trust. Instead of improving sales outcomes and buying experiences, the resulting behaviors and activities undermine them.

The top producers I’ve worked with have figured out a better way, and honed their skills accordingly. They begin with a natural curiosity, and connect it to a sincere desire to understand customer problems, limitations, issues, concerns, performance gaps, and strategic challenges. They uncover the intensity of motivation to change the situation, and learn the mechanisms their customers have developed for investing in solutions. And if customers lack the mechanisms, top producers guide them to create a path forward. From there, they harness the power of the customer’s will to change. The energy might be low, or altogether absent, which is why reps, often goaded by their managers, turn to Getting. My question to them: how’s that working for you? . . .

The best salespeople know that attempting to force customer action can become a distraction. It can also backfire. As one rep, Denise, explained it to me, “I don’t push the monthly specials the way management wants me to. They don’t work, and it’s not the way my customers buy . . . When I talk on the phone, there’s no sales urgency to my voice.” The year I interviewed her, she was her company’s top producer out of over 50 reps. Though her immediate boss wasn’t clear about the reasons for her success, her statement provides much of the answer: Denise guides her customers. She doesn’t get them to do anything.

Considering a Career in Sales? Find Something Different!

“Do you know what a sales interview is?” a friend of mine quipped. “It’s one person lying about the future, talking to another lying about the past.” My friend knew his joke contained truth. Newly retired from B2B sales, he wasn’t sanguine about the future of the profession. As we chatted over lunch, I added a few of my own anecdotes and observations. It was a lively talk. No need for alcohol.

Selling ain’t what it used to be. It’s possible that my friend stowed his sales bag for the last time because he was burned out. Though, at age 61, it was probably the right time to get off the bricks. The rest of that afternoon and into the next day, I thought about what he shared with me. I ruminated on the meaning of his dark joke. I considered how I might respond if a young person sought my advice about whether to pursue a sales career. The assessment that followed my introspection did not come easily, but here it is: look elsewhere. Today, there are better choices.

When I began my business career in the early 1980’s, things were different. Salespeople were respected. While most of us toiled in offices with a boss sitting nearby, salespeople had autonomy. They worked variable hours. They dressed well, and from all appearances, they lived well, too. At many companies, salespeople could expect higher-than-average income, often garnering better pay than managers. At a time when level of education predicted lifetime earnings, selling careers flamboyantly defied the calculus. A salesperson’s earning ability depended more on his or her motivation, tenacity, and street smarts than having a college degree. It still does.

At the manufacturing company where I worked my first job out of college, you could easily identify the cars that belonged to the salesmen (the company had no female sales reps): big, new, four-door, and well-appointed. A sales rep’s car did not just provide transportation, it proclaimed success. An important message for customers and coworkers to hear.

As the company’s IT Manager, I had nebulous goals. But the salesmen were measured on one thing –  revenue production. And they were paid accordingly. No mealy objectives, no ambiguity, and no boss holding sole power to dictate next year’s income. If salespeople felt anxiety about their compensation at risk, their job perks and upside income potential eased the pain. For these reasons and others, I too became drawn to a sales career.

When I was hired for my first sales job in the 1980’s, Marketing Representative was a common title for entry-level salespeople. Dale Carnegie, Zig Ziglar, and Brian Tracy were popular role models. I read their books, and listened to their tapes on the way to sales calls. Their messages brimmed with optimism, and were consistently inspiring. “Success is getting what you want . . . Happiness is wanting what you get,” Dale Carnegie wrote.

I learned that great power came from an unwavering belief in yourself. Good stuff. Today, those messages can still be heard, but they’re muted beneath the torrent of condescension and humiliation that spills unabated into my newsfeeds. Mislabeled as coaching and tips for self-improvement, today’s writing upbraids the rank-and-file. It carries titles like Salespeople – Shut up and listen!, and Salespeople Can’t Sell Anymore . General Patton would be proud.

What happened? The sales profession has lost its allure. Technological, economic, and social forces have combined to erode many of the once-valuable tasks that sales professionals provided. None have been profound than Artificial Intelligence (AI), data warehousing and distributed information systems, and investor demands to increase profits.

AI: AI has displaced thousands of repetitive, tedious sales tasks, and enables buyer self-service. Lead qualification and content fulfillment, once large drains on selling time, can now be performed better, faster, and cheaper by using algorithms.

Data Warehousing and distributed information systems: The ubiquity of customer information has allowed companies to knock down the massive walls that once surrounded the sales organization. Today, almost any employee can make rain, or generate revenue. In departments as disparate as customer support, maintenance, and route delivery and logistics, employees can take an order, recommend upgrade services, sell new products, and make other changes without referring customers to a “sales desk,” or an assigned salesperson.

Investor demands to increase profits: Spending excess has always been a popular target for the CFO’s scalpel, and sales operations contain conspicuous fat. Peeling back the covers on Sales, General & Administrative expenses reveals copious spending hiding in plain sight. Cutting high sales salaries, generous incentive pay, over-the-top benefits, Quota Club, annual golf outings, and season tickets at sports events, quickly gains approval from investors. “Think about it: If you have to ply your clients with gifts or meals to get them to do business with your firm, then your product  probably isn’t worth its price,” Andy Kessler wrote in The Wall Street Journal this month (The Expense-Account Racket, December 4, 2017).

Young people will find sales and business development careers less promising than when I started out. Some key issues:

Money. Meh. Commonly used as a recruiting tool, the promise of high income for salespeople is often illusory. A chunk of annual comp is “at risk,” which means what’s actually earned might be less than what’s projected (recall my friend’s joke at the beginning of this article).

The University of Virginia McIntire School of Commerce Destinations Report for 2017 reported average total compensation for its newly-minted grads who accepted sales and sales management jobs: $61,300. Tepid, compared to other business disciplines listed in the report. Among McIntire grads, the best coin goes to investment bankers, who were rewarded with a list-topping average annual comp of $115,000. Finance holds the #2 spot, at $90,294. (The average starting pay for 2017 undergraduates across all categories is around $50,000, according to Money magazine.)

Career path. You might think I’m mansplaining, but I’m not. There are two well-established trails:

  1. Revenue you produce meets or exceeds quota – keep your job
  2. Revenue you produce is less than quota – get fired.

If you crave living in northern reaches of the corporate org chart, the likelier route to get there goes through finance. “About 30 percent of Fortune 500 CEOs spent the first few years of their careers developing a strong foundation in finance. This is by far the most common early experience of today’s CEOs,” according to an article in Forbes.

Autonomy. Thanks to CRM software and advanced analytics, selling has become the most scrutinized, measured, and micro-managed business activity. “Drive higher quota attainment across your entire sales team by recording, transcribing, and analyzing their sales conversations,” one product website says. Some reps might welcome the assist. But I question the reasons. If a sales rep or manager needs software and spreadsheets to learn how customers perceive his or her words, or if they struggle to recognize positive things to say, maybe they’re in the wrong job. Or, maybe management simply doesn’t trust them to have adequate judgement.

Culture. A sales organization’s mission is to produce revenue, and its activities are aimed toward that goal. That’s a good thing if you don’t mind thinking about money above all else. But if you’re moved by more than how much business you will close this quarter, or the gross income figure on your W-2, that can become stultifying. Further, employers are often conflicted about sales. Sales VP’s expect reps to open accounts and build customer relationships, but they feel threatened when customers become more loyal to a sales rep than to the company. Hiring managers promise high income, but ratchet it back when they feel reps earn “too much.” It’s a power game, and companies try to maintain hegemony. As one district sales manager I worked with described it to me, “My ideal rep is a young guy with a stay-at-home wife, a mortgage, a baby, and another one on the way.” I’ve heard similar sentiment from others. A rep in a consumption trap can be controlled.

Goal conflict. Almost every sales position faces this problem, and it can be gut-wrenching to navigate. “Above all, make your number!” versus “Serve our customers!” It’s hard to keep two masters happy. But companies put their reps in a moral vise when they tie job security and pay to revenue results.

I don’t mean to imply that sales experience isn’t worth having. In fact, hands down, nothing prepares a young person better for success than gaining the rare combination of skills needed for converting prospects into buyers. This knowledge transfers to every business discipline, and provides understanding for how an enterprise achieves its central mission: acquiring – and keeping – customers.

You can’t learn any of it in a college classroom, and no other business experience provides a person anything more useful. People who have sales background understand not only that revenue doesn’t roll in on its own, they know the nitty gritty details of face-to-face selling. If you can get the opportunity to sell door-to-door, work as a sales intern, or have another sales experience, take it!  And if the work pleases you, stay with it. But keep your options open. There are other careers that are possibly more rewarding, and they can also benefit from your energy, effort, and passion.

From accounting to zoology, every career has its unique set of warts. Those that sully professional selling are no better or worse than any others. But whatever career you choose, make sure the warts that exist are warts you can live with. And as many in sales have learned, stay vigilant, because new ones grow all the time.

“Today, it is estimated there are anywhere from twenty thousand to forty thousand distinct occupations in the United States,” writes Robert Moor in his book, On Trails. “Rapid changes in technology, culture, education, politics, trade, and transportation have combined to allow people access to an array of lifestyles that was previously unthinkable. In the aggregate, this is a positive development, proof that our life’s paths are evolving to meet our varied desires. But a side effect of this shift – halting, gradual, and unevenly distributed as it may be – is that life’s options continue to abound until they overwhelm . . . Collectively we shape [life’s pathways], but individually they shape us. So we must choose our paths wisely.”